Solid waste

Solid waste refers to any garbage/sludge or waste product from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities. Solid Waste Management has three basic components. The objective of SWM is to reduce the quantity of solid waste disposed off on land by recovery of materials and energy from solid waste in a cost effective and environment friendly manner.

 Municipal waste

Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. "Garbage" can also refer specifically to food waste, as in a garbage disposal; the two are sometimes collected separately. Most definitions of municipal solid waste do not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, medical waste, radioactive waste, or sewage sludge. The municipality within a given area performs waste collection. The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing.
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) refers to a systematic process that comprises of waste segregation and storage at source, primary collection, secondary storage, transportation, secondary segregation, resource recovery, processing, treatment, and final disposal of solid waste.

 Industrial waste

Industrial waste refers to waste generated by businesses from an industrial or manufacturing process or waste generated from non-manufacturing activities. Businesses that utilize manufacturing or industrial processes, or that are service or commercial establishments are likely to produce industrial solid waste.


Landfills play an important role in effectively treating and disposing those wastes that are neither technically feasible nor economically viable to avoid, re-use, recycle, or reprocess remediation immediately. Each landfill design, its monitoring, management, and remediation should ideally comply with some environmental goals:

Prevent pollution of water

Prevention of water pollution by leachate is essential and leachate must be controlled within the landfill site. This in turn ensures that neither ground water nor surface water is polluted.

Sensing water pollution

Early detection and prevention of ground water and surface water pollution plays a key role in keeping the environment clean. Effective tool must be developed for early detection of ground water and surface water pollution.

Remediation of water pollution

Remediation forms an essential part of landfill planning and management. Any water pollution detected at ground water or surface water has to be immediately remediated.

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